You may be familiar with the "personality identification playing cards" which were issued to front-line personnel to identify potential threats, so maybe we need to use a similar approach to re-boot an awareness of potential threats on our Process plants to ensure our veteran personnel don't become complacent and our less experienced personnel are not exposed to hazards as a result of naivety or unfamiliarity.
Here's a suggested set of Process Safety Playing Cards:
Loss of Containment
CCPS Guidelines for Chemical Process Quantitative Risk Analysis, Appendix A: Loss-of-Containment Causes in the Chemical industry.
Lost Via an “Open-End” - failure or spurious operation.
Lost Via an “Open-End” - operator error.
Failure Within Design Conditions - imperfections due to undetected equipment deterioration.
Failure Within Design Conditions - imperfections arising from incorrect maintenance or inappropriate modifications.
Failure Within Design Conditions - impact damage from cranes, road vehicles or other plant machinery.
Failure Within Design Conditions - damage by confined explosions due to accumulation and ignition of flammable leaks.
Failure Within Design Conditions - settlement or failure of structural supports due to geological or climatic factors.
Failure Within Design Conditions - heat exposure or blast effects from a nearby fire/explosion.
Failure Beyond Design Conditions - overpressuring of equipment.
Failure Beyond Design Conditions - underpressuring of equipment (unable to withstand vacuum).
Failure Beyond Design Conditions - high metal temperature (loss of strength).
Failure Beyond Design Conditions - low metal temperature (cold embrittlement).
Failure Beyond Design Conditions - wrong process materials or abnormal impurities.
Potential Sources of Ignition
EN 1127-1: Explosive atmospheres — Explosion prevention and protection
Flames and hot gases (including hot particles)
Mechanically generated sparks
Stray electric currents, cathodic corrosion protection
Radio Frequency (RF) Electromagnetic waves
Adiabatic compression and shock waves
Exothermic reactions, including self-ignition of dusts
Process Safety Management
Energy Institute: High Level Framework for Process Safety Management
Operating manuals and procedures
Process and operational status monitoring, and handover
Management of operational interfaces
Standards and practices
Management of change and project management
Operational readiness and process start-up
Inspection and maintenance
Management of safety critical devices
Work control, permit to work and task risk management
Contractor and supplier, selection and management
Incident reporting and investigation
Audit, assurance, management review and intervention
Key Performance Indicators
IChemE Safety Centre: Lead Process Safety Metrics – selecting, tracking and learning 2015
Open Management of Change on SCE/Barriers
Demands on SCE/barriers
SCE/Barriers failing on demand
SCE/Barrier Inspections performed vs. planned or Maintenance deferred
SCE/Barriers failing on test
Damage to primary containment detected on test/inspection
Temporary Operating Procedures open
Emergency response drills to plan
Process safety related audits (inc. Permit to Work checks) to plan
Process safety audits (inc. Permit to Work checks) non-conformance
Compliance with critical procedures
Critical alarms per operator hour
These could be distributed in workshops, canteens etc. or alternatively (conveniently with 52 cards) have a specific theme for each week of the year.
As you'll appreciate, I've had to trim the list of card (topics) so welcome your thoughts on what are the most important message to get across (succinctly) to those who face process hazards on a daily basis
If anybody would like the native images, please send your details via the contact form on the website www.psintegrity.com